Punctuation Of The Simple Sentence
1. The clear, noble, passionate appeal moved deeply the whole audience.
2. The wise teacher directs his pupils calmly, affectionately, but firmly.
3. Ships, towers, domes, theaters, and temples, lie open unto the field and sky.
4. Lindens, elms, maples, and horse-chestnuts, formed a thick shade for the whole street.
1. Three or more words of the same grammatical construction when used in a series must be separated by commas.
1. Joy and sorrow, sickness and health, love and hate, are common to all men.
3. In a series of words in pairs, the pairs should be separated by commas.
1. To Thee, Eternal Father, earth's whole frame With loudest trumpets sounds immortal fame.
2. New Orleans, the queen of Southern commerce, was closed by the blockade.
3. There stood an unsold captive in the mart, A gray-haired and majestical old man.
4. The mistress of the mansion came, Mature of age, a graceful dame.
5. Peter the Hermit started the First Crusade.
By a careful study of these sentences we see how appositives are punctuated.
4. An appositive accompanied by modifying words is preceded and followed by a comma. If the appositive is unmodified, and closely connected with what precedes, no comma is required.
1. By holding the reins steadily, and by speaking gently, he soon quieted the horse.
2. In brief, he decided in the negative.
3. To tell the truth, I could not come.
4. The old-fashioned dress of Aunt Nancy, sorrowful to relate, shocked her city niece.
5. Adverbial phrases, if placed at the beginning of a sentence or between the simple subject and the predicate verb, are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.