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English Grammar For Students

Inductive Course in English: English Grammar For Students

By Larkin Dunton, LL. D.
Late Head-Master of Boston Normal School

and Augustus H. Kelley, A.M.
Master of Lyman School, Boston

BOSTON THOMPSON BROWN COMPANY
Copyright, 1901, 1902, 1904, by JULIA A. DUNTON and AUGUSTUS H. KELLEY
Plimpton Press
Printers and Binders, Norwood, Mass.
U. S. A.


Table of Contents


Preface
It has long been apparent to many teachers and students of language that progress in learning to use good English has been seriously retarded by the lack of a text book on English grammar, simple enou...

I. Language. Oral And Written
Language is the means which people use to express their thoughts; it is both oral and written. Oral language is a combination of sounds used to express thought. The sounds used to express though...

II. The Sentence
Good children obey their parents, expresses a thought about children. A thought expressed by means of words, either orally or in writing, is a sentence. Notice how the thoughts are expressed in the...

III. Subject And Predicate
Good children obey their parents. In this sentence the words naming the things about which we think are good children; so we call good children the subject of the sentence. Are the horses here? ...

IV. Nouns
Study the following words. Think of the object or quality for which each word stands : Boy, man, girl, woman, father, mother, dog, cat, hen, duck, goose, robin, swallow, horse, colt, cow, calf, tree, ...

V. Pronouns
The teacher could say, The teacher called John and told John to bring the teacher John's book; but such an expression would not be good English. It would be better for the teacher to say, I call...

VI. Verbs
We cannot express a thought with the parts of speech which we have already studied. The words apples good does not express a thought. Apples are good expresses a thought about apples. 1. John fe...

VII. Adjectives
1. Little children like sweet fruit. 2. They are beautiful. In these sentences the words little and sweet are used to tell the kinds of children said fruit mentioned. Beautiful is used to describe ...

VIII. Adverbs
1. The bird flies swiftly. 2. John came to-day. 3. The man worked here. In these sentences the word swiftly tells how the bird flies; to-day tells when John came, and here tells where the man...

IX. Prepositions
1. He is a man of learning. 2. Our friends over the seas still remember us. 3. The vessel was wrecked on the coast. 4. Your father works for you. In these sentences the groups of words, of...

X. Conjunctions
1. Her dress was black and white. 2. Send James or John to me. 3. We followed the trail over the mountain and across the valley. 4. You will not learn unless you study. 5. I will come beca...

XI. Interjections
1. Good! That lesson was well recited. 2. Hurrah! Vacation is here. 3. Alas! our dear friend is dead. 4. Oh! how my head aches. 5. Hush! you will wake the baby. In these sentences the w...

XII. Parts Of Speech
We have now briefly studied the kinds or classes of words, called parts of speech, used by the English-speaking people to express their thoughts. We have seen by our study thus far that there are e...

XIII. Phrases
To Err Is Human Here the words to err stand as the subject of the sentence, and are used as a name; therefore they are used as a noun. The Man Of Intelligence Makes His Influence Felt Here th...

XIV. Clauses. Complex Sentences
What He Said Was Instructive Here the words what he said name that of which we think; therefore they are used as a subject, like a noun. The Scout Reported What He Had Seen Here the words wha...

XV. Compound Sentences
Peter read and I listened. Here we have two sentences, each complete in itself, but united by the word and to show that they are related in thought. Each of these sentences, by itself is a simple sent...

XVI. Kinds Of Subjects And Predicates
As we have already seen, every sentence contains a sub-ject and a predicate. The subject is the word, or words, that name the thing about which something is asserted. The predicate is the word, ...

XVII. Verbs Of Complete And Incomplete Predication
1. The boy walks. 2. The rain falls. In these sentences each of the verbs walks and falls, is of itself the complete predicate of the sentence. Verbs which may be used as predicates, without the...

XVIII. Modifiers
1. The poor horse has a heavy load. 2. The train runs rapidly. 3. Admiral Dewey is a man of courage. 4. The time for play has passed. 5. What is the name of the book which you are reading?...

XIX. Simple And Complete Subjects
Many Beautiful Flowers Grow In The Woods In this sentence the word flowers, without the modifying words many and beautiful, is the name of that of which we think; and this word flowers is called th...

XX. Simple And Complete Predicates
Many Beautiful Flowers Grow In The Woods In this sentence the predicate verb grow, without the modifying phrase in the woods, tells us what flowers do. In the woods completes the thought by telling...

XXI. Kinds Of Sentences
Study these sentences: 1. The smith was a mighty man. 2. The smithy stood under a spreading chestnut tree. 3. It was the smith's daughter who sang in the choir. 4. He was pleased when he h...

XXII. The Simple Sentence
1. The horses walked. 2. The large horses walked slowly. 3. The large horses with flowing manes walked slowly over the bridge. However much the subject or predicate, or both, may be modified ...

XXIII. The Complex Sentence
1. James rejoiced when he reached home, because he saw his mother. 2. John, who has worked hard, is to be rewarded. 3. Though the road be rough and the distance great, he will arrive early, as h...

XXIV. The Compound Sentence
The farmer worked hard, and his crops were excellent. In the sentence written above, the farmer worked hard is not subordinate to the rest of the sentence. His crops were excellent is also not s...

XXV. Analysis Of Simple Sentence
Let us analyze the following simple sentence: Milton, the author of Paradise Lost, was deeply versed in ancient learning. Milton, the author of Paradise Lost, is the subject. Was deeply verse...

XXVI. Analysis Of Complex Sentence
Let us analyze the following complex sentence: Bryant wrote Thanatopsis when he was a very young man. Bryant is the subject of the sentence. Wrote Thanatopsis when he was a very young man is ...

XXVII. Analysis Of Compound Sentence
Let us analyze the following sentence : Spring has come and the air is filled with the songs of birds. This sentence consists of two coordinate statements. The first statement is Spring has come...

XXVIII. Classes Of Nouns
We have already learned that such words as Lincoln, Boston, hook, house, crowd, committee, justice, virtue are nouns. We notice that Lincoln and Boston differ from the other names given by beginnin...

XXIX. Properties Of Nouns Person
Let us study the meaning of the following sentences, being careful to notice what persons the nouns indicate: 1. I, Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States, do hereby appoint and set apa...

XXX. Number
By studying the following nouns and pronouns we see that different meanings are shown by the different forms of the same words: boy, boys; box, boxes; tree, trees; chair, chairs; fox, foxes; man, men;...

XXXI. How Plurals Of Nouns Are Formed
Notice how these nouns change to form the plural: tree, trees; road, roads; horse, horses. We see that the plural of these nouns is formed by adding s to the singular. Most plurals are formed in th...

XXXII. Gender
1. General Grant captured Vicksburg. 2. Clara Barton cared for the wounded soldiers. 3. The harvest moon is very beautiful. In these sentences we notice General Grant is the name of a man, Cl...

XXXIII. Case
Observe the relation which the words in italics in the following sentences bear to other words in the same sentence: 1. The wind blows from the sea. 2. His father's house is a beautiful mansion....

XXXIV. Declension
Let us examine the forms of the nouns boy, man, lady, child, given below and thus learn their declension. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. Singular Plural ...

XXXV. Parsing Nouns
Let us see how the nouns in the following sentence are used, and thus learn to parse them. John's brother is a boy of intelligence. John's is a proper noun, third person, singular number, mascul...

XXXVI. Personal Pronouns
If James had asked James's father, James's father would have allowed James to go nutting with James's playmates. No one thinks of using such awkward English in talking or writing, as we have given ...

XXXVII. Interrogative Pronouns
1. Who came this morning? 2. Which do you prefer? 3. What does the man want? In these sentences the pronouns who, which, and what are used to ask questions and make the sentences interrogativ...

XXXVIII. Relative Pronouns
1. The lady, who was here to see you yesterday, called again this morning. 2. Bring me the letters that lie on the table. 3. Is this the train which leaves for New York at six o'clock? 4. Tel...

XXXIX. Adjective Pronouns
1. Some men are wise and some are foolish. In this sentence the word some is used both as an adjective and as a pronoun. Words used like some in the proposition some are foolish are called adjec...

XL. Parsing Pronouns
Let us parse the pronouns in the following sentence: John, you may take my dictionary, which you will find in the library. You is a personal pronoun, second person, singular number, masculine ge...

XLI. Kinds Of Adjectives
1. The warm days are here. 2. The longest days come in June. 3. Three feet make one yard. 4. Seven days make one week. 5. This boy will do your errand. 6. Those books belong to Mary. ...

XLII. Articles
The adjectives an, a, and the, also called articles, are used as follows: A book, an apple, means any book or any apple, and not a particular book or apple. An or a is called the indefinite arti...

XLIII. Comparison Of Adjectives
Chalk is white, milk is whiter, snow is the whitest. It will be noticed in the above statements that the whiteness of chalk, milk, and snow are compared; that the milk has a greater degree of white...

XLIV. Regular Comparison
Observe these adjectives: Positive. Comparative. Superlative. small smaller smallest bright ...

XLV. Irregular Comparison
Some adjectives are compared irregularly. The following list contains most of those thus compared: Positive. Comparative. Superlative. bad, ill,...

XLVL. Number Of Adjectives
We say a good man, good men, a large horse, large horses. Adjectives of quality in English do not have forms to express number; the same forms of the adjective being used whether the noun is singul...

XLVII. Parsing Adjectives
Let us parse the adjectives in the following sentence: 1. The third house on the street is white. The is an adjective, called the definite article, and limits the meaning of house. Third is an o...

XLVIII. Transitive Verbs
James wrote the letter. In this sentence, the act of writing is done by James. The word letter shows what James wrote; it is therefore the object of the word wrote. The word letter must be expre...

XLIX. Intransitive Verbs
1. The Child Sleeps. 2. The Wind Blows. 3. The Sun Shines In these sentences, the states or actions denoted by the verbs sleeps, blows, and shines are represented as remaining with the subjects, c...

L. Voice
Study these pairs of sentences: 1. John read the book. The book was read by John. 2. Dixon made the pencils. The pencils were made by Dixon. 3. Lincoln wrote the Emancipation Proclamati...

LI. Mode
1. John writes. 3. Come home. 2. Were he here I would answer him. 4. I wish to go. In these sentences writes expresses a fact, were expresses a supposition or a condition, would answer expresses...

LII. Infinitive Mode
1. I am glad to see you. 2. The boys have gone to play ball. 3. The men have gone to work in the mill. 4. It is best to speak ill of no one. 5. Arthur was ready to go at once. The group...

LIIL. Present Participle
1. The children heard the birds singing their morning songs. 2. They saw the farmer boy driving the cows to pasture. 3. The sheep, grazing in the pasture, stopped to look at them. 4. Even the...

LIV. Past Participle
1. A tree, fallen across the track, delayed the train. 2. The traveler, blinded by the snow, lost his way. 3. The horses, frightened by the electric car, dashed up the street. In these senten...

LV. Perfect Participle
1. Having delivered the message, he left immediately. 2. Having finished his work, Harry was ready for play. 3. The child, having found its mother, was again happy. In the sentences above, th...

LVI. Tense
1. The sun is setting. 2. The sun set yesterday. 8. The sun will set at six o'clock. The uses of the verb set in the above sentences show us that the time of the setting of the sun is express...

LVIL. Forms Of The Tenses
The forms of a tense may be expressed in different ways. There are three forms of tenses, the common, the progressive, and the emphatic. Common Form: 1. The earth moves. 2. The boy studied. ...

LVIII. Person And Number
1. I am. 2. Thou art. 3. He is. 4. We are. In these sentences the verbs am, art, is, and are are said to agree with their subjects I, thou, he, and we. As the subjects have person and numb...

LIX. Regular And Irregular Verbs
If we examine the different forms of certain verbs we shall see certain marked differences. The verb love, without the use of other verb forms, gives love, loved, while the verb go gives go, went, ...

LX. Conjugation Of The Verb
The conjugation of a verb is an orderly arrangement of all its forms in its various modes, tenses, persons, and numbers. A principal verb is a verb that is not used in forming the modes and tenses ...

LXI. Conjugation Of The Verb Have
Principal Parts. Pre*. Past. Past Part, Have. Had. Had. Indicative Mode. Pr...

LXII. Conjugation Of The Verb Do
Principal Parts. Present. Past. Past Part. Do Did Done Indicative Mode. Present Tense ...

LXIII. Conjugation Of The Verb Be
Principal Parts. Pres. Past. Post Part. Be. Was. Been. Indicative Mode. Present Tense Singul...

LXIV. Conjugation Of The Regular Transitive Verb Love. Active Voice
Indicative Mode. Present Tense Singular. Plural. 1. I love. 1. We love. 2. Y...

LXV. Formation Of The Tenses
Active Voice. Indicative Mode. Present I come. 1 walk. I go. Present Perfect I have come. I have walked. I have gone. Past I came. I walked. I went. Past Perfect I had come. I had...

LXVI. Defective Verbs
A defective verb, as previously stated, is one that lacks some of its principal parts. Most of the auxiliary verbs are defective. For example, can is used only in the present and past tenses. Be...

LXVII. Impersonal Verbs
In the statements, It rains; it is cold; it is growing dark; it feels chilly, the subject it cannot be clearly defined. The meaning of the sentences is clear. We mean that rain is falling, that the...

LXVIII. Irregular Verbs
The conjugation of an irregular verb is just as easy as that of a regular verb, when the principal parts are known; for the forms of the various modes, tenses, persons, and numbers are made from the p...

LIX. Parsing Verbs
Let us parse the verb in the following sentence: Robert caught a mouse in a trap. Caught is a verb. The principal parts are catch, caught, caught. It is irregular, transitive, active voice...

LXX. Adverbs Exercises
1. We shall start immediately. 2. Henry will meet us to-morrow. In these sentences immediately and to-morrow tell us the time of starting, and the time of meeting. They are added to the verbs sh...

LXXI. Comparison Of Adverbs
1. Mr. Homer decided wisely. 2. Mr. Plympton decided more wisely. 3. The judge decided most wisely. The above sentences show us that adverbs ending in ly may be compared by prefixing more and...

LXXII. Parsing The Adverb
Let us parse the adverbs in the following sentence: The governor came to the meeting to-day and spoke remarkably well. To-day is an adverb of time, and modifies the meaning of came by telling us...

LXXIII. Prepositions
1. The bear was caught in a steel trap. 2. He studied till noon. 3. He went by rail to the house of his father. 4. Some toil for glory, some for their fellow-men. The words in, till, by, t...

LXXIV. List Of Prepositions
The most common prepositions are: a aboard about above across after against along amid amidst among amongst around at athwart before behind below beneath beside besides between betwixt beyond but b...

LXXV. Parsing Prepositions
Let us parse the prepositions in the following sentences: 1. I have not seen him since last January. 2. We rowed against the tide. Since is a preposition, and shows the relation of time betwe...

LXXVI. Coordinate Conjunctions
1. Mary has returned, and John will return to-morrow. 2. Will you go in the carriage, or will you walk? 3. William the Silent was a man of few words, but his deeds were most effective. 4. You...

LXXVII. Subordinate Conjunctions
1. Study hard that you may be wiser. 2. We shall not go if it rains. 3. Though all deny thee, yet will I not deny thee. 4. We ran fast far the bear was upon us. 5. Thou shalt love thy neig...

LXXVIII. Correlative Conjunctions
1. Give me neither poverty nor riches. 2. Either take the money or let me have it. 3. Both the President and the Secretaryof State were absent. 4. Whether he will refuse or obey, I know not. ...

LXXIX. Conjunctive Adverbs
1. When John came I was absent. 2. I know not where he dwells. 3. I know a bank whereon the wild thyme grows. 4. Louis watched the baby while his mother worked. 5. Children are happy whene...

LXXX. Parsing Conjunctions
Let us parse the conjunctions in the following sentences: 1. Birds and flowers are things of beauty. 2. Since you desire it, I will come. 3. We needed a fire, because the weather was so cold....

LXXXI. Interjections
Hurrah! we have a holiday! Alas! How did it happen? Hush! The baby is asleep. In the above sentences we notice that the words hurrah, alas and hush have no grammatical connection with the sentences...

LXXXII. Parsing Interjections
Let us parse the interjections in the following sentences: 1. Hush! you will wake the baby. 2. Oh I how the poor man suffers from his wounds! Hush is an interjection, and denotes a desire for...

LXXXIII. Uses Of Words
We have now studied all the parts of speech as used in sentences, and have seen that use alone determines the part of speech. Let us examine the uses of words a little further. 1. The box is mad...

LXXXIV. Syntax
Syntax is that part of grammar which teaches how words are combined in sentences, and shows their agreement, government, and arrangement. Many of the principles of syntax have been illustrated in t...

LXXXV. The Simple Sentence
A simple sentence contains but one subject and one predicate. The subject of a sentence is the word or words that name the thing about which an assertion is made. The predicate of a sentence is ...

LXXXVI. The Complex Sentence
1. We think that we can touch the stars. 2. The apple of life, which another has found, is not ours. 3. Heaven seems to us in childhood as our own mother's face. 4. We walked in the garden un...

LXXXVII. The Compound Sentence
1. I have been in the meadows all day, and I have gathered there these beautiful flowers. 2. The ancient spirit is not dead; old times are still breathing; there is still strength and dignity in li...

LXXXVIII. The Noun Clause
The noun clause, as its name implies, performs the office of a noun. The following sentences will illustrate its use: 1. Whosoever will may come. 2. That wise men may err is certain. 3. Sow h...

LXXXIX. The Adjective Clause
The adjective clause, as we have before seen, performs the office of an adjective. 1. The man, who lives opposite, is the mayor of the city. 2. That is the place where Hawthorne wrote the Blith...

XC. The Adverbial Clause
1. The keeper lived where he could command a view of the park. 2. There was no one at home when he called. 3. He sent to the husbandmen a servant that he might re-eeive of the fruit of the viney...

XCI. The Subject
The simplest subject of a sentence, either simple, complex, or compound, is a noun or its equivalent, unmodified. There are several equivalents for the noun. Study these sentences for them: 1. The ...

XCII. The Predicate
The predicate of every sentence contains a verb; for,. as we have seen, the verb is the part of speech used in making assertions. The verb of a sentence is sometimes called the predicate verb. The ...

XCIII. Meaning Of Sentences
We have learned that sentences are divided according to their meaning into four kinds: the declarative, the interrogative, the imperative, and the exclamatory; but we now wish to study their meaning m...

XCIV. The Elements Of Sentences
From the previous study it will be seen that the elements of the sentence are the subject, predicate, words, phrases, and clauses used as modifiers, and coordinate sentences. ...

XCV. Agreement
Agreement of verb with its subject. 1. I swim. 2. He swims. 3. They swim. 4. I do my work well. 5. He does his work well. 6. They do their work well. 7. I have a hook. 8. He ha...

XCVI. Agreement Of Case
1. John has brought the books. 2. He got them at the bookstore. 3. Flora is sewing. 4. She loves to sew. 5. My father and I went to see the Dewey parade. 6. We enjoyed the occasion very...

XCVII. Agreement Of Adjective And Noun
1. This book is the one you sent for. 2. These books are what you wished. 3. This kind of thing cannot go on. 4. These kinds of grains are raised easily. 5. That kind of conduct destroys a...

XCVIII. Agreement Of Pronoun And Antecedent
Observe that the pronouns in italics agree in person, number and gender with the nouns for which they stand. 1. I have bought you a book; it is Bird-Life, by Frank M. Chapman. 2. I met a littl...

XCIX. Agreement Of Tenses Clauses
Observe the tenses of the verbs in the clauses: 1. I will send you the keys, if I can find them. 2. I should sing, if you asked me. 3. I should have gone to the seashore with you, if I could...

C Agreement Of Modes And Tenses
1. They knew not that thence would come a better wisdom than could be learned from books, and a better life than could be molded on the defaced example of other lives. 2. Then the wind waves the br...

CI. Government
We express the fact that the objective case follows prepositions and transitive verbs by the following rules: The object of a transitive verb is in the objective case. The object of a preposition is i...

CII. Arrangement, Or Order
The student of good English must have observed that there is a certain fairly well defined order of using words. In general those words should be used, and that order followed, which will best conv...

CIII. Figurative Language
That orbed maiden, with white fire laden, Whom mortals call the moon, Glides glimmering o'er my fleece-like floor, By the midnight breezes strewn; And wherever the beat of her unseen feet, Wh...

CIV. Punctuation
1. O Rome! my country! city of the soul! The orphans of the heart must turn to thee, Lone mother of dead empires! and control In their shut breasts their petty misery. 2. Deep drank Lord Marmion of...

CV. Terminal Marks
A study of English prose and poetry shows that three different marks of punctuation are found at the ends of sentences. They are: 1. The period (.) 2. The interrogation point (?) 3. The excla...

CVI. The Period
The period is placed: 1. At the end of declarative and imperative sentences. Mr. Benj. Brown; Smith, Jones & Co.; Enoch Green, M.D.; John Judson, D.D., LL.D.; Trenton, N. J. Observe that the ...

CVII. The Interrogation Point
The interrogation point is placed at the end of interrogative sentences. 1. Art thou contented now? 2. What dost thou say? 3. What did he bring? 4. Where is he now? 5. Shall I try it? 6...

CVIII. The Exclamation Point
The exclamation point is placed at the end of exclamatory sentences. 1. Charge, Chester, charge! The game's afoot; Follow your spirit; and, upon this charge, Cry - God for Harry! England! and Sa...

CIX. Other Marks Of Punctuation
1. Sir Launfal woke as from a swound:- The Grail in my castle here is found! Hang my idle armor up on the wall, Let it be the spider's banquet hall; He must be fenced with stronger mail Who would see...

CX. Punctuation Of The Simple Sentence
1. The clear, noble, passionate appeal moved deeply the whole audience. 2. The wise teacher directs his pupils calmly, affectionately, but firmly. 3. Ships, towers, domes, theaters, and temples,...

CXI. Punctuation Of The Complex Sentence
The rules for the punctuation of simple sentences apply equally to complex sentences. 1. The men who refuse to work should not be fed by charity. 2. Those who labor will win. 3. Only those wh...

CXII. Punctuation Of The Compound Sentence
The principles of punctuation of simple and complex sentences apply also to compound sentences. 1. The rain descended, the floods came, and the winds blew and beat upon that house; and it fell not;...

CXIII. Derivation Op Modern English
Think of the meaning of the words arranged below in pairs. give, present; climb, ascend; go down, descend; mislead, deceive; stick, adhere; come back, return; sweat, perspire; free, deliver; might,...

CXIV. Roots
A study of the italicized parts of the words in the sentences below will show that the same roots may be made by different combinations to form words differing in meaning. 1. We a-scrib-ed the glor...

CXV. Prefixes
Study carefully the following words: fold, unfold; cede, precede, recede, intercede; ply, comply, supply, reply. Notice how the syllables placed before or prefixed to fold, cede, and ply modify the me...

CXVI. Suffixes
Try to think of words ending in ship, as friendship; in ling, as duckling; ful, as beautiful; less, as fearless; ly, as manly; in some, as gladsome; in ish, as boyish; in er or or, as flier, actor; an...

CXVII. Selections For Analysis And Parsing
1. Kindness is the golden chain by which society is bound together. 2. If a man empties his purse into his head, no man can take it away from him. An investment in knowledge always pays the best in...

CXVIII. Sentences, And Selections From Literature
In order that the vital connection between grammar and literature may be made more complete, and thus make a deeper impression upon the pupils, added sentences, and selections from the best literature...

CXIX. Subject And Predicate
Point out the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences: 1. The dog loves the child. 2. Does the child love the dog? 3. The hunter caught the hare. 4. Where does the har...

CXX. Verbs And Their Subjects
Point out the verbs in the following sentences, and name the subject of each: 1. Idleness is the mother of vice. 2. The road at the left leads to the village. 3. The house on the hill belongs...

CXXI. Adjectives And Their Nouns
Point out the adjectives in the following sentences, and tell the nouns which they modify: 1. The tall foxglove bows his pink head. 2. The east is bright with morning light. 3. The merry horn...

CXXII. Adverbs, And The Words They Modify
Point out the adverbs in the following sentences, and indicate the words which they modify: 1. He answered readily. 2. The train starts now. 3. John saw him yesterday. 4. She wrote very we...

CXXIII. Phrases, Kinds And Uses
Point out the phrases in the following sentences, and tell what kind they are, and what they modify: 1. He sat by the roadside. 2. I stood on the bridge at midnight. 3. The door of the school...

CXXIV. Clauses, Kinds And Uses
Point out the clauses in the following sentences, and tell what word is modified by each clause. Tell the kinds of clauses. 1. He who will not strive will not thrive. 2. It was the time when lil...

CXXV. Clauses, Kinds And Uses
Point out the clauses in the following sentences, and tell what word is modified by each clause. How do these clauses differ from those in Section CXXIV.? 1. The book was where I left it. 2. The...

CXXVI. Clauses, Adjective And Adverbial
Select the adjective and the adverbial clauses in these sentences, and tell what each clause modifies: 1. Look into the garden where the grass is green. 2. Weary and long is the way which she ha...

CXXVII. Clauses, How Used
Tell how each clause in the following sentences is used: 1. Who said it is unknown? 2. That the story is true was evident. 3. That all were lost was soon reported. 4. That you may be happy...

CXXVIII. Subjects, Predicates, And Phrases
Point out the subjects, the predicates, and the phrases in the following sentences. Tell whether each phrase is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb- 1. A railroad train was rushing along at ...

CXXIX. Clauses, How Used
Point out the clauses in the following sentences, and tell whether they are used as nouns, as adjectives, or as adverbs: 1. We heard the wind that round the gables roared. 2. A score of years ha...

CXXX. Kinds Of Sentences, Phrases, And Clauses
Tell which of the following sentences are complex or compound. Point out the phrases and clauses in these sentences, and tell the use of each: 1. The crew thought that their passenger was a crimina...

CXXXI. Uses Of Nouns
Uses of nouns and pronouns as subjects, predicate nouns, objects, etc. 1. Our Country, we love thee. 2. Mahomet was an Arabian. 3. My friends! alas, I have no friends. 4. Are you a friend ...

CXXXII. Indirect Objects
Nouns or pronouns used as indirect objects. 1. He will give you a fair trial. 2. Send me your report at once. 3. Helen's father bought her a new book. 4. The general told us a very interes...

CXXXIII. Pronouns And Antecedents
Give the antecedent, and name the ease of each pronoun in the following sentences: 1. I read the book that you lent me. 2. I do not know whose pen I have. 3. The man to whom I wrote answered ...

CXXXIV. Transitive And Intransitive Verbs
Point out the verbs in the following sentences, and tell whether they are transitive or intransitive: 1. Put the pens in the box. 2. The arrow hit the mark. 3. The rain fell in torrents. 4...

CXXXV. Uses Of Infinitives
Tell how the infinitives in the following sentences are used: 1. John began to do his examples. 2. I want some paper to cut into circles. 3. He went to call help. 4. I will try to improve ...

CXXXVI. Participles, Kinds And Uses
Point out the participles in the following sentences, and tell whether they are present, past, or perfect participles, and name the words which they modify: 1. I saw James writing with a gold pen. ...

CXXXVII. Choice Literary Selections
In order that the principles of grammar, illustrated by the study of the sentences and the short selections from literature already given in this book, may be made more general in their application, a...

CXXXVIII. Eloquence Of O'Connell
Broadly considered, O'Connell's eloquence has never been equalled in modern times, certainly not in English speech. Do you think I am partial? I will vouch John Randolph of Roanoke, himself an orator ...

CXXXIX. From "The Deserted Village"
Sweet Auburn I loveliest village of the plain, Where health and plenty cheer'd the laboring swain, Where smiling spring its earliest visit paid, And parting summer's lingering blooms delay'd;...

CXL. Extract From Daniel Webster's Bunker Hill Oration
Venerable Men! you have come down to us from a former generation. Heaven has bounteously lengthened out your lives, that you might behold this joyous day. You are now where you stood fifty years ago,...

CXLI. The Daffodils
I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o'er vales and hills, When all at once I saw a crowd, A host, of golden daffodils; Beside the lake, beneath the trees, Fluttering and danci...

CXLII. Tact And Talent
Talent is something, but tact is everything. Talent is serious, sober, grave, and respectable. Tact is all that, and more too. It is not a sixth sense, but it is the life of all the five. It is the op...

CXLIII. What Constitutes A State
What constitutes a state? Not high-raised battlements or labored mound, Thick wall or moated gate; Not cities proud, with spires and turrets crowned; Not bays and broad-arm ports, Where, laughin...

CXLIV. The Footprint In The Sand
From Robinson Crusoe. It happened, one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was exceedingly surprised with the print of a man's naked foot on the shore, which was very plain to the legen...

CXLV. From "The Legend Of Sleepy Hollow"
Hard by the farmhouse was a vast barn, that might have served for a church; every window and crevice of which seemed bursting forth with the treasures of the farm; the flail was busily resounding with...

CXLVI. Our Country
We cannot honor our country with too deep a reverence; we cannot love her with an affection too pure and fervent; we cannot serve her with an energy of purpose or a faithfulness of zeal too steadfast ...

CXLVII. The Love Of Country And Of Home
There is a land, of every land the pride, Beloved by Heaven o'er all the world beside; Where brighter suns dispense serener light, And milder moons imparadise the night; A land of beauty, virtue, valo...

CXLVIII. Fitz James And Ellen. From "Lady Of The Lake"
On his bold visage middle age Had slightly press'd its signet sage, Yet had not quench'd the open truth And fiery vehemence of youth; Forward and frolic glee was there, The will to do, the soul to dar...

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